There are a number of implementations of nuclear technology, from research and demonstration reactors to fully commercial facilities. Resources in this section include descriptions of specific projects as well as technology road maps addressing broader implementation strategies.


The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has worked on desalination development in India since the 1970s. This report summarizes those efforts, including a description of the national strategy, demonstration projects, technologies and future plans.
This journal article reviews the adverse environmental impacts of nuclear desalination. Where marine impacts are concerned, the authors propose mitigation strategies based on alternative intake designs or cooling systems. Where atmospheric impacts are concerned, they propose looking into the coupling with the nuclear power source. They also examine public opinion trends and find increasing favourability.
This technical analysis describes the design and efficiency of a district heating system using a GTHTR300 reactor in Hokkaido, Japan. The system goal is to provide structural heating and road snow melting using the reactor's waste heat while considering safety. The authors describe the differences in efficiency between single- and double-pipe implementations, and they present the relationship between efficiency, construction cost and long-term system economy.

The PULSTAR reactor at North Carolina State University (NCSU) went critical in 1972 and has been operating at one megawatt thermal since then. To enhance the engagement of the PULSTAR in the institutional mission of NCSU, a strategic plan with well-defined education, research and service/outreach objectives has been under implementation since 2002. The combination of capabilities and partnerships has resulted in significantly enhanced utilization levels of the PULSTAR, which now approach 10,000 user hours annually.

The authors of this journal article propose generating electricity using spent nuclear fuel using a hybrid heat pipe system comprised of a dry storage cask with heat pipes and a Stirling engine. Using a 1/10-scale test facility, they conducted an experimental test of heat transfer and electricity generation as the module of the storage system, and their results agree with a theoretical model.

A new high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module demonstration power plant was completed in June 2015, in Shandong, China. The 210-megawatt plant represents an achievement of industrial cooperation in service to safety and economy, according to the authors. It employs three safety measures: silicon carbide fuel cladding, low power core volumetric power density and small reactor modules.